Hatha Yoga and the Bhagavad-gita
Article courtesy of BTG International Magazine - based in Florida, USA
How the Bhagavad Gita teaches the eight steps of hatha yoga, the topic of
According to a 2003 survey by the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, an estimated 13.4
million Americans practice yoga, and many more experiment with it every year. Yoga is everywhere—from Mumbai to
Moscow to Monte Carlo. But while yoga is meant to bring one closer to God, many of today’s yogis have a
different agenda, the most common being to keep their bodies in shape.
“They’re not necessarily deeply spiritual, but looking more to do yoga as another form of
exercise,” says Jennifer McKinley, co-founder and general manager of Plank, a Charlestown, Massachusetts, maker of
chic, high-end yoga mats, totes, and other accessories. Launched in 2005, the company projects sales in the
upcoming year that will rival that of Western exercise equipment.
In an increasingly secular world, we naturally want to adapt valuable ancient techniques for
contemporary purposes, but yoga is losing its essence in the process.
Yoga is a science left to us by the sages of India. The word yoga literally means
“to link up,” and its implication, originally, was similar to the Latin root of the word
religion, which means “to bind back.” Thus, yoga and religion are both meant to bring us to the
same end: linking up and binding with God.
The Inner Message of the Yoga-sutras
Today’s yogis might find it interesting that traditionally the preeminent text on yoga is
Bhagavad-gita—not Patanjali’s famous Yoga-sutras. But the Gita is not your
usual yoga text, full of difficult bodily poses and strenuous meditation techniques. Rather, it offers a
practical outline for achieving the goal of yoga—linking with God—by encouraging the chanting of Krishna’s
names, by teaching how to act under Krishna’s order, and by explaining the importance of doing one’s duty in
spiritual consciousness. These activities, properly performed under the guidance of an adept, allow one to
bypass much of what is considered essential in conventional yoga.
And yet there is harmony between the Gita and the Yoga-sutras. For
example, both Lord Krishna and Patanjali indicate that we must transcend all false conceptions of “I” and
develop love for God, which Patanjali calls ishvara-pranidhana (“dedication to God”).
Patanjali wrote in the third century CE, but little is known about his life. His only surviving
text, the Yoga-sutra, would indicate that toned physical and mental tabernacles are helpful in the
pursuit of spiritual truth. In fact, his major accomplishment is that he took age-old practices meant for
improving the body and the mind and codified them for the benefit of spiritual practitioners.
But Patanjali’s Yoga-sutras merely hint at the truths illuminated in the
Bhagavad-gita, which might be considered the post-graduate study of Patanjali’s work. Even so,
Patanjali intended his method to be used for ultimate spiritual benefit, as some of his verses, especially later
ones, clarify. Still, many yoga practitioners today use his method solely for physical and mental health because
in the beginning of his work Patanjali mainly focuses on basic methods related to the body and the mind, without
much spiritual commentary.